Planning and Design of Behavioral Healthcare Facilities

Behavioral Healthcare Facilities: The Current State of Design

In keeping with most districts of healthcare, the marketplace has seen a boom in the construction of Behavioral Healthcare facilities. Contributing to this increase is the paradigm shift in the way society views mental illness. Society is placing a heavier value on the need to treat people with serious addictions such as alcohol, prescription and elicit drugs. A large percentage of people suffering from behavioral disorders are afflicted with both mental and addictive behaviors, and most will re-enter communities and either become contributors or violators.

These very specialized facilities do not typically yield the attention from today’s top healthcare designers and their quantity accounts for a small fraction of healthcare construction. However, Behavioral Healthcare projects are increasing in number and are being designed by some very prominent architectural firms such as Cannon Design and Architecture Plus. Many are creating state-of-the-art, award-winning contemporary facilities that defy what most of us believe Behavioral Healthcare design to be.

Changing the Way We Design Behavioral Healthcare Facilities

As with all good planners and designers, A+D (along with facility experts) are reviewing the direct needs of patient and staff while reflecting on how new medicine and modern design can foster patient healing rates, reduce environmental stress, and increase safety. This is changing the face of treatment and outcome by giving the practitioner more time to treat because they require less time and resources to “manage” disruptive patient populations.

The face of Behavioral Healthcare is quickly changing. No longer are these facilities designed to warehouse patients indefinitely. And society’s expectations have changed. Patients are often treated with the belief that they can return to their community and be a contributor to society. According to the National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems (NAPHS), depending on the severity of illness, the average length of stay in a Behavioral Healthcare facility is only 9.6 days.

What has changed?

Jaques Laurence Black, AIA, president and principal of New York City-based daSILVA Architects, states that there are two primary reasons for the shortened admission period:

1. Introduction of modern psychotropic drugs that greatly speed recovery

2. Pressures from insurance companies to get patients out of expensive modes of care

To meet these challenges, healthcare professionals are finding it very difficult to effectively treat patients within the walls of antiquated, rapidly deteriorating mental facilities. A great percentage of these facilities were built between 1908 and 1928 and were designed for psychiatric needs that were principled in the belief to “store” not to “rehabilitate.”

Also impacting the need for Behavioral Healthcare construction is the reluctance of acute-care facilities to provide mental health level services for psychiatric or addiction patients. They recognize that patient groups suffering from behavioral disorders have unique health needs, all of which need to be handled and treated only by very experienced healthcare professionals. This patient population also requires a heightened level of security. Self-harm and injuring staff and other patients are major concerns.

The Report of the Surgeon General: “Epidemiology of Mental Illness” also reports that within a given year about 20% of Americans suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder and 5.4% suffer from a serious mental illness (SMI ) – defined as bipolar, panic, obsessive-compulsive, personality, and depression disorders and schizophrenia. It is also believed 6% of Americans suffer from addiction disorders, a statistic that is separate from individuals who suffer from both mental and addiction disorders. Within a given year it is believed that over one-quarter of America’s population warrants levels of mental clinical care. Even if these statistics were cut in half, it cannot be denied as a serious societal issue.

With a growing population, effectively designing in accordance with such measures is at the heart of public health.

Understanding the Complexity of Behavioral Healthcare Design

Therefore, like Corrections, leading planners and designers specializing in Behavioral Healthcare are delving deeper to better understand the complexity of issues and to be the activist to design facilities that promote treatment and healing – and a safer community.

The following is a list of key design variables that are being studied and implemented:

1. Right Sizing

2. Humanizing Materials and Color

3. Staff-Focused Amneties and Happiness

4. Security and Safety

5. Therapeutic Design Tenants


Today’s Behavioral Healthcare facilities are often one-story single buildings within a campus size. Often debated by Clients due to costs, this design preference is driven by the demand for Uncategorized light, window views to nature for all patient areas, and outdoor open-air gardens “wrapped” within. All of this provides soothing qualities to the patient, reduces their anxieties, counteracts disruptive conduct and helps to reduce staff stress.

“When you look at the program mix in these buildings, there’s a high demand for perimeter because there are a lot of rooms that need Uncategorized light. Offices, classrooms, dining areas, community rooms, and patient rooms all demand Uncategorized light, so you end up with a tremendous amount of exterior wall, and it forces the building to have a very large footprint.” – James Kent Muirhead, AIA, associate principal at Cannon Design in Baltimore

These design principles are also believed to improve staff work conditions. Unlike a multi-story complex, at any moment staff can walk outdoors and access nature, free from visual barriers, and within a building that more accurately reflects building types that both patients and staff would encounter in their communities.

In addition to right-sizing for the overall building footprint, is right-sizing for internal patient and staff support area. Similar to the move we have seen in Corrections to de-centralize support spaces, Behavioral Healthcare is moving to decentralized nursing/patient units called “neighborhoods.” With mental health facilities there is a large concern with distances and space adjacencies in relation to the patient room and patient support areas such as treatment and social spaces. Frank Pitts, AIA, FACHA, OAA president of Architecture Plus, Troy, NY, advocates neighborhoods that average 24-30 beds arranged in sub-clusters, called “houses”, of 8-10 beds. Thus, each neighborhood consists of three houses. Often these layouts will include a common area where patients congregate and socialize, with a separate quiet room so patients can elect to avoid active, crowded areas. In addition Pitts states, “There’s a move away from central dining facilities. So, while facilities will still have a central kitchen, it’s a whole lot easier moving food than it is patients.” However, it is important for the facility to mimic normal outside daily life routines, so patients are encouraged to frequently leave their neighborhoods to attend treatment sessions, and outdoor courtyards.

Humanizing Materials & Color

In all facilities that play a role in rehabilitation, design strives to create spaces that humanize, calm, and relax. Behavioral Healthcare patients need to feel that they are in familiar surroundings; therefore, the architectural vocabulary should feel comfortable and normal. Since these facilities are about rehabilitation (when possible) and encouraging patients to merge back into society, the facility should feel like an extension of the community. Their spaces should reflect the nature and architecture of the surrounding region and thus so, no two facilities should look too much alike.

“Our a
pproach to designing these facilities is to view the facility as an extension of the community where patients will end up when they’re released. Interior finishes also depend on geography because you want to replicate the environment patients are used to. You want to de-stigmatize the facility as much as possible.” – Tim Rommel, AIA, ACHA, OAA, principal with Cannon Design in Buffalo, NY.

Therefore, materials and colors within these spaces want to feel familiar to one’s region and everyday life. To soothe the psyche and rehabilitate, they want to feel soft and comfortable, yet visually stimulating. An interior that is overly neutral or hard in appearance is not appropriate. Materials should reduce noise, and colors should lift the spirit. This can help to create an environment in which the patient can learn, socialize, and be productive while easing anxieties, delivering dignity, and modifying behavior. As stated previously, behavioral studies advise the use of softer interior materials-like carpeting, wood doors and tile. Doing so translates directly to both patient and staff well-being, particularly staff safety, and makes for a nicer place to work. In addition, staff have more resources to “treat” instead of manage heated situations. When staff experiences are eased and satisfied, morale is boosted and life-saving rules and policies are more likely to be enforced.

Staff-Focused Amenities & Happiness

While reducing staff stress and fatigue through a healing supportive environment seems like an obvious goal, there are relatively few studies that have dealt with this issue in any detail. More attention has been given to patient outcomes. However, many leading hospitals that have adopted therapeutic tenants into their newly built environments have seen vast improvement through their “business matrixes” and financial reporting.

In one example, the Mayo Clinic, a national leader in implementing healing design in its facilities, has reported a reduction of nursing turnover from a national annual average of 20% to an annual 3%-4%. In another example, when Bronson Methodist Hospital incorporated evidence-based design into its new 343-bed hospital, they cited their 19%-20% nurse turnover rate dramatically dropped to 5%.

Now, both the Mayo Clinic and Bronson Methodist Hospital have had to initiate a waiting list for nursing staff seeking positions. This converts to better-trained and qualified staff, and a reduced error rate. Therefore, more health facilities are investing in staff support areas such as lounges, changing rooms, and temporary sleep rooms. Within these staff spaces and in the hospital throughout, facilities are also recognizing the need for upgrade materials, better day lighting, and an interesting use of color: One soon realizes that the need of patients and staff are interwoven, each impacting positively or negatively the other.

Security & Safety

Without debate, self harm and harm to staff is one of the biggest concerns mental health facilities manage. Often the biggest safety and security concern is the damage patients can do to themselves. “There are three rules I had drummed in me,” says Mark Hanchar; Director of Preconstruction Services for Gilbane Building Company, Providence, R.I. “First, there can’t be any way for people to hang themselves. Second, there can be no way for them to create weapons. Third, you must eliminate things that can be thrown.” Hanchar says that the typical facility is, “a hospital with medium-security prison construction.” This means shatter proof glass, solid surface countertops (laminate can be peeled apart), stainless steel toilets and sinks (porcelain can shatter), push pull door latches and furniture that cannot be pulled apart and used as a weapon. These are just to name a few.

Additionally, removing barriers between patients and nursing staff is a safety consideration. Frank Pitts, AIA, FACHA, OAA president of Architecture Plus, says what may be counter-intuitive for safety precautions, “Glass walls around nursing stations just aggravate the patients.” Removing glass or lowering it at nursing stations so patients can feel a more human connection to nurses often calms patients. There is also discussion of removing nursing stations altogether; decentralizing and placing these care needs directly into the clinical neighborhoods and community spaces. Pitt says, “The view is that [nursing staff] need to be out there treating their patients.”

Therapeutic Design Tenants

As medicine is increasingly moving towards “evidence-based” medicine, where clinical choices are informed by research, healthcare design is increasingly guided by research linking the physical environment directly to patient and staff outcomes. Research teams from Texas A&M and Georgia Tech sifted through thousands of scientific articles and identified more than 600 – most from top peer-reviewed journals – to quantify how hospital design can play a direct role in clinical outcomes.

The research teams uncovered a large body of evidence that demonstrates design features such as increased day-lighting, access to nature, reduced noise and increased patient control helped reduce stress, improve sleep, and increase staff effectiveness – all of which promote healing rates and save facilities cost. Therefore, improving physical settings can be a critical tool in making hospitals more safe, more healing, and better places to work.

Today’s therapeutic spaces have been defined to excel in 3 categories:

1. Provide clinical excellence in the treatment of the body

2. Meet the psycho-social needs of patients, families, and staff

3. Produce measurable positive patient outcomes and staff effectiveness

Considering the cost of treating mental illness, which is exceedingly high, and wanting facilities to have effective outcomes, a further practice of incorporating therapeutic design is increasing. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIM H) approximated in 2008 that serious mental illnesses (SMI ), costs the nation $193 billion annually in lost wages. The indirect costs are impossible to estimate.

The estimated direct cost to clinically treat is approximately $70 billion annually and another $12 billion spent towards substance abuse disorders. In addition to the increased need of care and the boom in Behavioral Healthcare construction, it becomes an obligation to make certain that we as facility managers, architects, designers and manufacturers therapeutically plan and design these facilities.

Notably, in 2004, “The Role of the Physical Environment in the Hospital for the 21st Century: A Once-in-a-Lifetime Opportunity,” published by Roger Ulrich P.H.D., of Texas A&M University, was released. In a culmination of evidence-based research, research teams found five design principles that contributed significantly to achieving therapeutic design goals.

The report indicates five key factors that are essential for the psychological well-being of patients, families and staff, including:

1. Access to Nature

2. Provide Positive Distractions

3. Provide Social Support Spaces

4. Give a Sense of Control

5. Reduce or eliminate environmental stress

Access to Nature

Studies indicate that nature might have the most powerful impact to help patient outcomes and staff effectiveness. Nature can be literal or figurative – Uncategorized light, water walls, views to nature, large prints of botanicals and geography, materials that indicate nature and most importantly, stimulating color that evokes nature. Several studies strongly support that access to nature such as day-lighting and appropriate colorations can improve health outcomes such as depression, agitation, sleep, circadian rest-activity rhythms, as well as length of stay in demented patients and persons with seasonal affective disorders (SAD).

These and related studies continue to affirm the powerful impact of Uncategorized elements on patient recovery and stress reduction. Thus, it is clea
r that interior designs which integrate Uncategorized elements can create a more relaxing, therapeutic environment that benefits both patients and staff.

Positive Distractions

These are a small set of environmental features that provide the patient and family a positive diversion from “the difficult” and, in doing so, also negate an institutional feel. These can be views to nature, water walls, artwork, super imposed graphics, sculpture, music – and ideally all of these want to be focused on nature and, when applicable, an interesting use of color. Therapeutic environments that provide such patient-centered features can empower patients and families, but also increase their confidence in the facility and staff. This helps with open lines of communication between patient and caregiver.

Social Support Spaces

These are spaces designed partially for the patient but mainly for the comfort and socialization of family members and friends of the patient; therefore, family lounges, resource libraries, chapels, sleep rooms and consult rooms all play a role. When family and friends play a key role in a patient’s healing, these spaces encourage families to play an active role in the rehabilitation process.

Sense of Control

In times when patients and family feel out of control, it is very healing for the facility design and staff to provide it back when appropriate. Although, this cannot always be done suitably in mental healthcare facilities. However, when applicable, these design features include optional lighting choices, architectural way-finding, resource libraries, enhanced food menus, private patient rooms and

optional areas to reside in. A few well-appointed studies in psychiatric wards and nursing homes have found that optional choices of moveable seating in dining areas enhanced social interaction and improved eating disorders. When patients feel partially in control of their healing program and that the building features are focused to them, an increased confidence of the quality of care enters and tensions lower.

As with all therapeutic design, this allows the caregiver to use their resources healing in lieu of “managing” patient populations.

Reduce or Eliminate Environmental Stress

Noise level measurements show that hospital wards can be excessively noisy places resulting in negative effects on patient outcomes. The continuous background noise produced by medical equipment and staff voices often exceeds the level of a busy restaurant. Peak noise periods (shift changes, equipment alarms, paging systems, telephones, bedrails, trolleys, and certain medical equipment like portable xray machines are comparable to walking next to a busy highway when a motorcycle or large truck passes.

Several studies have focused on infants in NIC Us, finding that higher noise levels, for example, decrease oxygen saturation (increasing need for oxygen support therapy), elevate blood pressure, increase heart and respiration rate, and worsen sleep. Research on adults and children show that noise is a major cause of awakening and sleep loss.

In addition to worsening sleep, there is strong evidence that noise increases stress in adult patients, for example, heightening blood pressure and heart rate. Environmental surfaces in hospitals are usually hard and sound-reflecting, not sound-absorbing causing noise to travel down corridors and into patient rooms. Sounds tend to echo, overlap and linger longer.

Interventions that reduce noise have been found to improve sleep and reduce patient stress. Of these, the environmental or design interventions such as changing to sound-absorbing ceiling tiles, are more successful than organizational interventions like establishing “quiet hours.”

Conclusion and Additional Information

The information contained in this excerpted report is intended as a guide for architects, specifiers, designers, facility planners, medical directors, procurers, psychologists and social workers which have a stake in providing improved facilities for behavioral healthcare patients. It is a portion of a report entitled “The Contributions of Color” authored by Tara Hill, of Little Fish Think Tank. Ms. Hill was commissioned by Norix Group Inc., in 2010 to research the role color plays in the safe operation of correctional facilities and behavioral health centers. More in-depth information specifically about the psychological influence of color and behavioral healthcare facility design can be found by reading the full report.

Aarkstore Enterprise– Medical Equipment Industry

The report provides an overview of the Chinese market for medical equipment and devices, with focus on four key emerging markets beyond already established cities such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou.

Table of Contents :

Executive Summary
Industry Overview
Market Overview: Tianjin
Market Overview: Shenzhen
Market Overview: Nanjing
Market Overview: Chongqing
Trade Event
Key Contacts
About the Author
Aarkstore Enterprise is a leading provider of business and financial information and solutions worldwide. We specialize in providing online market business information on market research reports, books, magazines, conference at competitive prices, and strive to provide excellent and innovative service to our customers. Our customers include more than 700 leading financial institutions, professional service firms, consulting, law and accounting firms and other corporations throughout the world.

Market Research, Market Research Reports, Industry Analysis, Business Research, Business Market Research, Apparel, accessories, Babies Corner, Books, Food, Household Needs, Jewellery, Web Designing, Development, Search Engine Optimisation, Search Engine Marketing, Automotive, Accounting, Banking, Finance, Biotechnology, Consumer Goods Construction, Energy Resources, Food Drink, Health Safety Insurance, Law & Regulation Management, Pharmaceuticals Telecommunications, Accounting Biography, Finance Health, Safety, Law, Regulation Educational, Management Engineering, market size information, market access strategies, market share, export and import information, market analysis, market trends, competition, domestic production, best sales prospects, statistical data, tariffs, regulations, distribution and business practices, end-user analysis, trade shows, contact points, conference, events, seminars, magazines.

Aarkstore Enterprise specialize in providing online market business information on market research reports, books, magazines, conference booking at competitive prices, and strive to provide excellent and innovative service to our customers.

IV Sedation Is Safe, Quick and Painless

IV sedation basically means administering the sedation through the veins. IV stands for intra-venous. There are some dental procedures that require the patient to be sedated. This can be done two ways – either through general anesthesia or through IV sedation medication. Most dentists and even patients prefer IV sedation over general for several reasons.

IV Sedation vs. General Anesthesia

Though the result is the same, both procedures are quite different. With general anesthesia you inhale the sedation gas through a mask whereas with the intravenous sedation medication is administered with an injection through the veins.

General anesthesia causes complete unconsciousness where you are not aware of anything around you whereas when you receive IV sedation, you are aware of what’d going on and can even respond to the dentist’s visual clues. With both methods, you do not feel any pain at all.

One of the reasons why dentists prefer the IV method is that it allows them to monitor the situation more closely and adjust the levels depending on the patient’s pulse, oxygen levels and blood pressure.

What Happens in IV Sedation

If you and your dentist have decided on IV sedation there are a few things that will happen. First your dentist will ask you several questions to determine your entire medical history, complete with any incidences of allergies, heart problems, diabetes or other conditions. Accordingly you will be evaluated for the procedure depending on whether you are on any kind of medication

Bathroom Remodeling – Simple and Fun Remodeling Tips For Everyone

What do you think is the most important room in the house? How about the room you start and end each day in-the bathroom. After all, you do some of the day’s most important activities in there!

The fact is that a drab, dull bathroom can make you feel like you’re dragging your morning along. It’s not the place you want to see right before you hit the sack. It’s the place we run to when we want to hide; it should be the perfect place to spend time!

Bathroom remodeling doesn’t have to be a major undertaking. A few simple touches can turn your boring room into a potty paradise. You’ll want to lock yourself in and never come out. Here are some great remodeling ideas.

Let In The Light!

The simplest, easiest thing you can do to brighten this essential room is to let in more light. Throw open those windows, and paint everything in relaxing, light colors. If that window doesn’t provide enough light, bring in some more mirrors. The bathroom is the one room where you can never have too many. Mirrors reflect the light and make it even brighter. This is a simple idea that anyone can do.

Bring On The Knick Knacks

Some knick knacks can make a dull room feel homey and lived-in. A great place to start is the wicker basket. Candles, clocks and pictures are great knick knacks for the restroom. Bring in whatever you like. For something useful, put a wicker basket where you can keep your shampoo and other important items. But, don’t over knick knack to the point where it feels cluttered. Start small, and add as you see fit.

Storage-Get Organized

A great way to improve any bathroom is to add cabinets. Cabinets provide a place to put your toiletries. Shelving is okay, but wouldn’t you feel better with all that personal stuff put away? Cabinets make you feel organized and tidy, and they can give your room the illusion of more space.

Spend A Little And Accessorize!

Bathroom remodeling accessories are not expensive at all. Spend a little and make your refuge more comfy. Warming towel racks keep your towels just as warm as you want them when you step out of the shower.

A soap and shampoo dispenser adds a stylish touch to your shower. And, while we’re at it, why not go for a whirlpool spa? If it sounds too fancy for you, keep in mind that they have come down so far in price that anybody can afford them. Treat yourself nice!

Remodeling your bathroom doesn’t have to be complicated. A few simple touches here and there can really brighten the room where you do your business. But, don’t get carried away! After all, a too-immaculate bathroom can cause other problems.

Nobody wants to be taking 2-hour showers and running up the water bill, or getting stuck in front of the mirror primping and preening. Your remodeled bathroom may be an earthly paradise, but remember, you still have to go to work!

The Uses and Types of Industrial Gears

Gear, by a very basic definition is the machinery or device in a vehicle that regulates the power of its engine. However, the modern and sophisticated industrial gears have surpassed the conventional gears, both in application and scope. Today, the gears are used in a multitude of applications in numerous sectors. Some of the industries in which the contemporary gears are used include aviation, cement, defense, fertilizer, food-processing, medical, railway, steel, to name a few. Given below are some most prominent and useful types of industrial gears:

1) Bevel Gears: In these conical shaped gears the teeth perfectly mesh together. These gears are useful when there is a change required in the direction of the shaft’s rotation. These gears can be used in different number of teeth to increase or decrease the rotational speed. Although these gears are generally installed on shafts at a 90¡ angle, they can work well at other angles as well. These gears are also considered very beneficial as they allow adjustments during the assembly stage.

2) Differential Gears: This gear is very commonly used in the automobiles. It links two separate shafts with a covering and tune the total rotational angles of the shafts to that of the covering. These gears are designed in such a manner that when the differential side gear is meshed with the other gear then it produces a high torque, which is transmitted to the axle shaft. There is a set of coaxial gears present in the differential gears. This set includes pinions and turntable.

3) Girth Gears: These gears are used in numerous industrial applications. They are unique in the way that unlike other gears, they are made in multiple segments which can be of two, four, or eight equal sizes. Some benefits that one might get by choosing these gears are their low initial cost, ease of installation, simple operation, to name a few. Their most popular standards include AGMA 321.05, AGMA 6004 F88, and ISO 6336. These are also known as split ring gears.

4) Helical Gears: These are also one of the well-known types of industrial gears. The involute teeth of these gears mesh at an angle to create optimum thrust load. The name helical is due to their teeth, which are curved along a helical path or resemble a helix. Their advanced design enables a smooth operation of these gears. Not only this, they can comfortably carry heavy loads due to the enhanced surface contact with teeth.

5) Spur Gears: Although these gears are simple in operation, they are used in a multitude of industrial and non-industrial applications. They are often found in cylindrical or disk shapes. These gears are used for the purpose of making variations in the force and speed of rotating axles. They possess straight teeth and are usually installed on parallel shafts. They can be used either separately or in a combination of two or more spur gears, depending upon the scope and nature of the application.

Besides the types of gears mentioned above, there are a lot of other gears and gearing equipment available at present. If you are seeking comprehensive and reliable information on these advanced equipment, you should visit Gears Manufacturers Marketplace.

Comparison Car Rental Websites

The World Wide Web, or internet, is by far the most revolutionary invention mankind has come up with. There is an unlimited amount of information available to us with just a few key strokes. Car hire is included in this. We can now compare rates from the major car hire companies instantly. The good thing about this is that the companies are aware that clients can check. This keeps them more competitive and we reap the benefits with cheaper car hire.

With the internet however it does reduce our power to bargain with the companies as they already have the cheaper rates on the website. So the bargaining is already done and it doesn’t matter if you have a provider you prefer. You can still use the internet to get the best price from that branch, if it is more convenient. Whatever the reason, this extra information is good for us.

You can now find the best deals on car hire where ever you are in the world by using a comparison site. No need to spend your valuable time looking for local car operators numbers and spending hours on the phone talking sometimes to someone who may not speak your language. A comparison site will use software that taps into the National Companies live systems and will display the available cars and prices for you to choose from. Bottom line is that you will save money and time.

These comparison sites are ever evolving, working to make the process of booking car hire as streamlined as possible. The site will be easy to navigate providing all the information you need to complete the booking as well as offer you the ability to select any optional extras that may be required during your car rental. These may include Satellite Navigation (GPS), baby seats, additional driver and excess reduction, reducing your liability in the event of any accident. All the information is available at your fingertips, so be sure to read the Terms and Conditions applicable to the car you are planning to hire.

The global economic climate has not stopped travelers from taking their scheduled holidays. Some travelers are shortening the holiday, but overall with the airlines competing with cheap airfares people are still moving around and enjoying travel. You may find car hire rates a little cheaper due to competition and by far the best place to shop is on line for the best deals. Book early for car hire. Don’t expect to show up at a popular airport and get a bargain. You’re there, you need a car, they have the car and you will need to have the money and drivers license. So it will not be cheap. Book well before leaving home and have your confirmation with you on arrival. Remember if you are traveling during peak seasons, you will pay more for car hire, and everything else for that matter. See you somewhere in the great outdoors. Save travels everyone!

Car Colors And Personal Choices

If you look at the stories on car colors and the popular shades available in the color spectrum, you’ll see that white, followed by silver and black, has been a persistent choice for new car buyers. Of all cars sold in America, almost a quarter are white. In Asia, it seems that silver is more predominant while in Europe, somber black is more popular. This trend, specially the preference for white, has been popular only since the 90s. Before that, there was a more colorful array of cars, with red, green and orange vehicles common on U.S. roads.

It would take a sociologist or some other specialist to accurately speculate about color trends. Evidently though, external factors make people prefer some colors to others. For example, some colors, like gray, have become known to be less visible during dusk. This is a time when drivers have not yet turned on their headlights and daylight has become twilight. Maroon also seems to disappear as night falls, and anecdotal reports of dark or dull cars being more accident-prone may have become a reason why colors like these aren’t so popular in cars nowadays.

You’ll find some sites with table correlating some value or characteristic to particular colors. For example, red is supposed to be for dynamic, high-energy people, while yellow is for intelligent and comfort loving folk. Black would be for empowered, elegant business types while silver are for future-looking dudes. We can’t say that there isn’t any grain of truth to these classifications, but with white being a perennial favorite for several years, should we say that a majority of motoring enthusiasts are fastidious people? Because that’s what a lot of racing cars are painted with. White. There is a more practical reason to that though. White makes a terrific background for all those sponsorship decals and inspection of car parts for leaks or damage is easier if a car’s engine compartment or underchassis is white.

Dupont and PPG, both major paint suppliers to automotive manufacturers, have been keeping meticulous records on what colors sold most in years and decades past. Their data shows that people buyers are quite exacting in their color choices, although some consumer surveys indicate that a wider range of colors would be welcome too. Maybe the somber mood borne by not-so-optimistic economic news is affecting color choices too, which is why neutral tones are prevalent. But then, with more car owners opting to keep their cars longer, safe color choices will not look dated after just a few years.

Over the Counter Age Spot Removers Are Bad For Your Health

Shopping for an over the counter age spot remover needs special attention. Reason being is there are products on the market in the United States that contain ingredients that may be harmful to ones health.

One such substance I have in mind when looking at over the counter age spot remover, is hydroquinone. This ingredient has been banned in EU countries because it is believed to be a cancer causing.

In 2006 the FDA here in the U.S. proposed a ban to get this off the shelves, but it hasn’t taken effect yet, and there is no date set for the proposal to be acted upon. I don’t know about you, but I would guess there are some big companies fighting that regulation – companies that would have a lot of money to lose if the proposal becomes law.

You’ll have to decide for yourself if you want to go to the drug store or department store and purchase a skin-lightening cream that contains this substance in it. You’ll be playing Russian roulette with your health if you do.

A better choice than using an over the counter age spot remover, is to go online or to your health market and find something that has Uncategorized ingredients that have been proven safe.

Nutgrass root is one such ingredient. It has been proven in clinical trials to lighten skin by up to 40%. This grass grows in the wild in India. It also has skin-anti irritant properties, so if you deal with sensitive skin, it will prove to be gentle and not cause any irritation.

The brown spots on your skin are caused by the UV rays form the sun. Free radical damage to the cells occur also when you spend too much time I the sun.

The best substance to fight free radical damage is CoQ10. This is a powerful antioxidant that will go to war against these cancer-causing agents. Look for a special nano-emulsion form of CoQ10 that will penetrate deep into the skin’s layers to help get rid of your wrinkles and fine lines.

So instead of reaching for the over the counter age spot remover looks for a skin whitening cream that will also work on other signs of aging like wrinkles and fine lines.

We all deserve to have smooth soft young looking skin; we just need to be cautious about using products that may harm our health. Read the product labels and be sure what you are putting on your skin won’t cause you health problems.

Remember what goes on your skin, will get into your blood stream. If you want more information about which ingredients to steer away from, check out my web site. There you can find out the ingredients not to use, and also what ingredients you should use.

Get That Perfect Pair of Horse Boots to Enjoy a Smooth Ride!

People fond of riding horses very well understand the importance of good horse boots. A horse riding boot is footwear worn for the purpose of riding on horses. Classic riding boots have been used since ages immemorial and refer to those that rise as high as the knees to protect the legs from being pinched by the leathers of the saddle. These boots also have a well-built toe that protects the rider’s feet when on the ground, and are also combined with high heels prevent riders from slipping through the stirrup.

But again all boots are not the same. There are several different kinds of horse riding events or sports and there are different boots to go with it. Wearing the correct horse boots for a specific sport or style is an essential element for each horse rider. It has been seen all throughout history that most societies have used horses combined with special clothing and boots in order to make best user of the horses. There are different sorts of boot styles and a very famous one amongst those is paddock boots. These boots have always been associated with aristocracy and luxury and have been worn by very famous people. Paddock boots use laces on the front and a heel.

Though there are various sorts of riding boots; horse boots are mainly divided into two categories, namely English and Western. The English boots are made with soft leather that is of high quality. English boots consist of different styles like tall boots that come up to your knees and paddock boots that come just above the ankle and provide the lower leg with more flexibility. The long ones also come in different styles and look quite graceful.We also have Jodhpur boots that are worn with Jodhpur trousers that come down to the ankles.

The Western boots are also available as long and short types. They are normally made of leather with a solid heel and sometimes have a decorative pattern on the calf area. Western boots always will come up to your calf. These are usually made of cowhide but sometimes even materials like alligator or snakeskin are used. Perfect and suitable horse boots are very important both for the rider as well as the horse to avoid accidents and injuries.

Chase Business Cash Rewards Credit Card – One Card for All Your Business Expenses

The Chase Business Cash Rewards Card is a Visa cash back rewards card issued by Chase Manhattan Bank and is ideal for people with excellent credit looking to consolidate business related expenses with one credit card and planning to utilize the rebate program to the maximum. Based on the FICO score recommendation, you should have a great or nearly perfect credit record. A FICO score of at least 764 is recommended for a higher chance of approval for the Chase Business Cash Rewards Card, but is not required. You will generally require your basic business information, including your Federal tax I.D. number and telephone and permanent address when you apply for this card.

The introductory APR is as low 0.00% for 6 billing cycles on purchases and balance transfers and that too without any annual fee. Though it depends on your credit history and varies from 5.99% to 9.99% added to the prime rate, 14.99% being the regular APR. However, once the introductory rate expires, the Chase Business Cash Rewards Card does have an above average interest rate for purchases and balance transfers.

The Chase Business Cash Rewards Card is a cash back card providing you with cash rewards on your purchases and its rewards system is based on points. Through the rebate program you can receive up to 5% cash back on most of your purchases without any limit on the amount of cash rewards you can earn. According to the rebate program you get one point per $1 for new net purchase totalling between $0 to $2000 each billing cycle; five points per $1 for new net purchase totalling over $2,000 and up to $2,500 each billing cycle; and 1.25 points per $1 for new net purchase totalling over $2,500 each billing cycle. You will receive $50 every time you earn 5,000 points or you can also choose to receive brand-name merchant gift certificates.

If you are looking beyond the rewards program for something more substantial then too the Chase Business Cash Rewards Card is the ideal card for you. Not only does it provide you with amazing rewards and partial cash returns, it also provides several benefits including a purchase protection plan, travel accident insurance and also auto rental insurance. There are some additional perks along with the Chase Business Cash Rewards Card like emergency cash replacement, emergency card replacement, lost and stolen reporting, various travel and emergency assistant services, extended warranty for purchases, purchase protection and of course the Visa Business Partner Advantage. What’s more, the Chase Business Cash Rewards Card offers you quarterly management reports, year end financial statements if you want and additional cards to be used by your employees. To top it all, you can fully avail the various internet account related services and you are under no liability for unauthorised purchases made by your Chase Business Cash Rewards Card.

If you plan to occasionally carry a large revolving balance, you might find doing so a little costly due to the ‘Two Cycles Average Daily Balance’ method used by the Chase Business Cash Rewards Card to determine finance charges, which ends up costing more to maintain an occasional balance compared to the ‘Average Daily Balance’ method used by some other credit card issuers. Hence, if you can pay in full each month after the introductory rates expires (to avoid finance charges) and plan to take advantage of the reward program you will benefit most from the privileges offered by the Chase Business Cash Rewards Card.